Elementary bases of game air fight (flight simulators)

Elementary bases of game air fight

The introduction.

On what only planes it is not necessary to fly to our fans of aviasimulators. And, it is necessary to tell at once, what not all of them are intended for conducting air fights. There are planes of air support of overland forces (their problem – drawing rocket and bombing attacks on the ground purposes), and there are the planes specially intended for a gain of domination in air space. I.e. there are tactical fighters-bombers, and there are also fighters-interceptors. But on what the military plane you flied, as a rule, time and a place of air fight do not choose, and it is necessary to be able to survive in any conditions.

It is necessary to tell at once, that the survival in air to fight in many respects depends on dynamic characteristics of your plane, and they, as is known, not the best if the plane up to a limit is loaded ракетнобомбовым by arms, in addition ” under an outset ” is filled by fuel.

Therefore, if there is an opportunity of a choice try to get involved in air fight not when you fly on the fighting task and when it is successful отбомбившись, you come back to base.

By the way, efficiency of action of antiaircraft defense and истребительной aircraft is defined not only and not so much themes, how many planes of the attacking party have been brought down, and and that compelling the opponent усиленно to maneuver, you many times over reduce accuracy of its impacts, and in many cases and in general compel to dump the killing cargo anywhere if only to unload the plane.

One more additional effect of action of forces of antiaircraft defense is that carrying out the maneuvers, the attacking party quite often breaks fighting build the planes, and it is quite often equivalent to a failure of all fighting task.

In this clause we shall familiarize with some (bare) receptions of behaviour in air to fight. Since times of the first world war these receptions have passed a long way of development and perfection, but even the bare technics if it to apply correctly, will help you alive to return on base and to take off on following mission behind new awards.

In air from you limiting concentration of all skills of piloting is required to fight, therefore we believe, that you have preliminary learned to fly by the plane confidently enough. Decisions in air to fight are accepted in shares of second, here there is no time for meditation and all operations should be carried out automatically.

Successfully to battle in air to fight, it is necessary to maneuver skilfully. To maneuver is means often and quickly to change direction movement and speed. And now we shall recollect the first law

Newton:

         ~if on a body external forces it keeps do not operate
         ~state uniform and rectilinear movement

         Have recollected? And as uniform and rectilinear movement is that to us just absolutely and it is not necessary, means to us it is necessary, that on our plane external forces and the more, the operated better.

” The magnificent four ”

What forces act on your plane?

         First, it is force of draft of engines. You can operate her. In any aviation simulator there is an opportunity to increase draft (THRUST).

Secondly, it is force of resistance of air. The above speed, the this force above. Still it depends on the area of cross-section section of your plane. Operate her you cannot, but can use it, for example quickly to reduce speed horizontal flight. Pay attention that this force is completely not necessarily opposite to force of draft. There is some ” a corner of attack ” between a direction of draft of engines and a direction набегающего a stream. As a rule, it is a sharp corner though those who saw ” Cobra Пугачева ” (when the jet plane flies a tail forward), should understand, that this corner can be and stupid.

Following force – a gravity. Operate her you in reasonable limits cannot (except for as having dumped a cargo and having interrupted fighting mission), but can use and should. Owing to it you manage “to exchange” a stock of height for a stock of speed – in it a basis of many maneuvers.

And last force without which any plane elevating force will not depart. You can operate her and is besides very effective.
Elevating force is formed owing to two effects. First, owing to a corner of attack. As набегающий the air stream falls on a plane of the plane under some corner (” a corner of attack “) there is the vertical component which is “pushing out” the plane upwards. This component is the basic in modern jet planes. But there is one more component in elevating force. The structure of a wing of the plane is made in such a manner that that air stream which flows round a wing from above, has a little bit greater speed, than that stream which flows round a wing from below. From a rate of physics you can remember law Бернулли, that the above speed in a stream, the below in it pressure.

Therefore it turns out, that pressure of air under a wing is a little above, than above it. As a result, on a wing elevating force operates. This component plays a greater role on низкоскоростных planes, in particular on screw and an even greater role on engineless gliders.

By the way, for this reason the attitude of the area of wings to the area of all plane at screw is much more, than at jet, and at gliders maximal. For this reason do by many planes changeable geometry of a wing (that jet planes could fly at low heights at smaller speed owing to increase in the area of wings).

Thus, efficient control plane in fight and effective maneuvering are reduced actually to efficient control and use of this of ” the four of forces “, and how much well they are used in one plane and it is bad in other, already depends on dynamic characteristics of the plane, i.e. that in it designers have enclosed.

Power of flight.

Let’s begin with that we shall tell that the pilot whom have overtaken flying with low speed at small height is a bad pilot. However, there are situations when it is necessary for it by virtue of any specific reasons. But generally it has not enough opportunities for struggle against the opponent. In fact in air to fight much defines speed. And it cannot is fast be dispersed (highly resistance of air at small heights), to dive, having accelerated due to force of gravitation. Pay attention also that draft of the jet engine depends on with what speed the burned down gases are thrown out. And they at small heights are thrown out worse since there is a pressure of air. In the best way jet engines develop draft at heights of the order of 10 km where pressure of air is not enough. So, speed means for the pilot in air to fight a life, and its absence – death. Small height and low speed – fatally dangerous combination.

There is one more unpleasant feature of flight at small heights.
Trying to keep speed, pilots up to a limit increase draft and include a forcing. Thus first there is a raised charge of fuel (that too can lead to failure of mission), and secondly, working at full capacity engines are such nice beacon for rockets with infra-red prompting what only it is necessary to wish.

From here a conclusion: if so it is necessary for you to fly by a site at low height in advance gain height and in a dive “exchange” it for speed without speeding up of engines. Even flat and short decrease allows the plane (jet) to reach high speeds. The stock of height is necessary for you as a stock of the electric power in the accumulator. It can be accumulated gradually, and during necessary time to use.

One more case when your plane can lose speed and to become easy extraction of the opponent, occurs, if you without need execute turns with high overloads. Even very much высокоманевренные planes cannot long remain ” filled up on a wing ” with a corner close to 90 degrees. Try on any simulator and be convinced, how speed quickly falls. Thus, by the way, aerodynamic elevating force becomes directed horizontally and there is already nothing to resist to a gravity. The plane appears under threat of ” to fall down in a corkscrew “. In many game programs of it warn the message that arises “stall” (“lag”).

Well and the most natural way to extinguish horizontal speed is to soar up abruptly upwards. Thus the height which subsequently again can be exchanged” for speed (it similar on storage of money in savings bank), by the way, is reserved. But here there is a risk. The above you rise, the more visibly you appear for radio-electronic eyes of the opponent and the more so vulnerable for ground means of air defence. As the pilot, choose, that to you at present it is more important. It depends that at you for the machine what your problem and plus from what character have threats of the opponent.

The analysis of a situation.

Management of power of the flight is a necessary element of any air operation, especially important during air fight. But in the present to fight of it a little. You should not only watch a power condition of the plane, but also closely trace all actions of the opponent. You should be well informed constantly about that occurs in the sky and is fast, but precisely to analyze a situation.

It is a basis of bases of air fight. A typical mistake of beginning pilots that they are so keen by behaviour of own plane that lose a string of that puzzle which is spun around of them by the opponent. Taking a great interest in “hunting” behind the escaping purpose, they forget about other dangers and find out in itself on a tail of “gangster” when already happens too late. The radar Here helps, and some simulators allow to include ” a kind back “. Besides in some programs there is a second member of crew which can warn in time the message on threat behind. But, anyway, it is necessary to hold conditions in a head and to understand, that occurs behind even if ” the kind back ” in the program is not present as in the heat of fight there is no time to switch screens.

One more mistake of beginning pilots consists that they by inexperience approach to air fight as to bidimentional battle though it obviously is three-dimensional. It is necessary as soon as possible to learn to use the third measurement, though information on it on flat screens of radars and insufficiently. It is necessary to master technics of fight not only in a horizontal plane, but also attack from other echelons on height.

In spite of the fact that modern planes are from top to bottom filled by electronics intended in the help to the pilot, nevertheless the human factor was and remains a major factor of air fight.

From ability of the pilot to understand and quickly to analyze a situation its success depends. Strange, but the fact, that despite of huge progress of aircraft last eighty years, bases of air fight with what were, such and have remained. Jet engines and self-directed rockets have made this fight very transient, but the essence has not changed at all. Electronics electronics, and air fight it always a duel of two men and depends on how the plane is equipped, how many how the pilot is prepared not so much. More skilled always wins, even if its plane and is a little obsolete.

In practice quite often happens and so, that numerous auxiliary systems not only do not simplify a life to the pilot, but also on the contrary complicate its problem. That noise which they make, оглупляет and distracts it from the most important. Imagine a situation when onboard electronics gives out the message on start-up on the plane of rockets of air defence. During this moment all nerves are on a limit and the maximal concentration is required, and here on onboard communication messages from the second pilot act, blink bulbs of readiness of fighting arms, something is shone on the screen of a radar, moreover there are any commands from the ground. These minutes the pilot tests such nervous overload, that its brain is blocked also the information up to it does not reach. In days of the Vietnamese war many American pilots have taken for a rule immediately after start to disconnect the most part of onboard systems and to take the basic analysis of conditions up (we do not know, whether was the same practice and at our pilots in Афгане). Yes, modern means of equipment of fighters-bombers are certainly good, but nevertheless the main things still have the person, its skill and its instinct of self-preservation owing to which it thinks and operates outside possible.

One of the basic qualities who bring up in pilots-interceptors, the feeling of confidence of, consciousness, that it – the best is. Without such feeling it is better to not enter air fight. On the other hand, it never borders on self-confidence, negligence and тугодумием. The skilled pilot, as though it concentrated on attack a responsible minute, nevertheless is nevertheless well enough prepared instantly to count a degree of risk and to accept the true decision is unique.

Stages of air fight.

From films we imagine, as there is an air fight. Two planes make in air complex maneuvers with the purpose to come to the opponent in a tail and to amaze it from a back hemisphere. Nevertheless, it still far do not weigh air fight, it begins much earlier.

The lost party, as a rule, has lost still before planes were seized in this dizzy ball. However, during this moment it about it does not guess.

In air fight can allocate five basic stages:

                          1. Detection.
                          2. Rapproachement.
                          3. Attack.
                          4. Maneuvering.
                          5. A divergence.

DETECTION. It is responsible enough phase of forthcoming air fight. You cannot amaze what could not find out.
That modern air fights occur on huge speeds and on time minutes and borrow seconds, does not leave time to pilots on long reflection and decision-making. Therefore to outstrip the opponent the actions even for some seconds has huge value. Early detection of the opponent allows you to the first to begin preparatory maneuvering and, maybe, even to overtake it unawares. And when also you will be found out, the initiative will be already in your hands.

         Modern planes are equipped by the powerful radars, capable to find out the opponent on distances more than 100 kilometers. On the other hand, speeds are those, as this distance becomes covered during very short time. Early detection of the opponent allows you to estimate more precisely conditions, gives a stock of time for acceptance of the best decision and on preparation for its execution, and in general promotes the best understanding of a situation in air.

         When you have found out the opponent (visually or by means of a radar), it cannot be overlooked for a second. At modern speeds the plane in the sky looks an insignificant promptly moving point.
    Derivation on shares of second can cost its losses from a kind and then all procedure of detection should be repeated all over again, and it can already be too late. The statistics of all wars from the First world up to now shows, that the majority of planes got off at all in two-edged air fights. In most cases the victim got off before has managed to find out the hunter. The factor of unexpectedness was and remains the major factor of air fight so be on the alert.

         The American pilots in Vietnam had a saying: ” It’s better to have MIG at six than no MIGs at all ” (it is better to have the INSTANT on a tail, than it is not known where). By the way, the term ” at six ” (” on a tail “) is sometimes used in programs-simulators, for example in messages from the second pilot. It occurs from representation about a dial. If to imagine hours in which 12 hours specify a direction of your flight 6 hours (“six”) just and appear at you ” on a tail “.

         RAPPROACHEMENT. It is the second stage of air fight. At this stage you should accept a number of critical decisions on which the outcome of battle subsequently can depend.

         After the purpose is found out, it is necessary to define its accessory (“-another’s”). The second decision – an estimation of a situation and calculation, whether it is necessary to fasten fight. Usually before beginning rapproachement, on the plane of the opponent let out the long-range missiles directed on the reflected beam. Both parties can make it.
    So the first contact so attitudes before rapproachement are fastened is come into. To apply such rockets on distant distances conveniently as it is easy to hold the plane of the opponent in a narrow range of corners and to highlight its beam of your radar. Preliminary start of rockets limits opportunities of maneuvering of the opponent, it should deal as though with two-three opponents and to make the exact decision on tactics of rapproachement begins more difficultly. Those who will survive after such first exchange посылками, can continue a phase of rapproachement.

         When you have made a decision that fight is accepted, it is necessary to forget about all and to concentrate only on it. The basic purpose of a phase of rapproachement consists in that so to reduce a distance up to the opponent that at an output in a zone of fire you would be in more best position.
    Here you should make instantly the correct decision and start its realization. The best position which you could borrow it, certainly, “six-hour” position. If you will come to the opponent into a tail, it will have huge difficulties. You not only can confidently pursue the opponent, repeating its maneuvers, but also deprive with its opportunity of use of onboard arms which, as a rule, is calculated on application in a forward hemisphere.

         However, be close. It is necessary to estimate precisely speed as the, and the contender. Small “search”, and you will exchange places.

         If detection of the opponent has been made by means of a radar you can be assured, that the enemy is informed that you somewhere by a number. In modern planes there are systems for that detection, that the plane has got in “flare” of an enemy radar. Nevertheless, that fact, that the opponent is informed on your presence yet does not mean, that it knows, where you are and that you do. So, you always have a chance to begin maneuver of rapproachement before it has had time to analyse a situation.

         Somewhat rapproachement can depend on you have accepted what plan of fight. The term “rapproachement” at all does not mean, that you should steal up to the opponent as it is possible more close. Sometimes the stage of rapproachement comes to an end, when planes divide some more tens kilometers. It is conditionally possible to consider, that rapproachement comes to an end when planes are in a zone of usual visibility. In other words, rapproachement comes to an end when all your systems of arms including systems of near action can work on the plane of the opponent.

         At a stage of rapproachement for a second it is not necessary to forget that the opponent puts before itself precisely same problems and that is favourable to it, it is not favourable to you. Therefore at a stage of rapproachement your main ally is speed. Owing to it you carry out the actions so quickly, it is how much possible, reducing the enemy time for reflection and execution of the plans.

         When rapproachement comes to an end, you pass to the third phase of air fight, and it can proceed differently, depending on that, than rapproachement has ended. Basically, three situations are possible: when you by results of rapproachement have grasped advantage when you have conceded advantage to the enemy and when positions of the parties are equivalent (rapproachement has ended “in a draw”).

         ATTACK. If by results of rapproachement you have grasped primary position further all proceeds simply. It is necessary to execute necessary operations on нацеливанию the fighting weapon, to press buttons and to not forget to evade from enemy fragments.

         Business is at all so if dominating position belongs to the enemy. Here your problem – to shake the opponent from a tail at the first opportunity and to exchange with it places. And at least you are obliged by the maneuvers to complicate as much as possible to it an aiming.

         If neither you, nor your contender by results of rapproachement have not won the resolute superiority maneuvering for both parties only begins. That party which the first will make a mistake will be lost. The second chance to correct it most likely any more will not be, so try, that the loser were not you.

MANEUVERING. If someone it is fated to make a mistake and to be lost, most likely it will occur at this stage. The one who will incorrectly choose the necessary maneuver or will execute it carelessly, that will give the opponent invaluable chance of a victory. That’s it this phase of fight to us just more often also show at cinema, when planes of contenders are weaved into a puzzling ball in searches of the successful moment to thrust in the opponent a rocket or turn from a gun.

         Those maneuvers which thus are applied, are known давным for a long time.
    These are usual aerobatic manoeuvres and to think up here something new probably it is impossible. All has put only in a correct choice of the necessary figure and carefulness of its execution. If you wish to win air battles, it is necessary to you as it is necessary to be trained in execution of these figures, but not only… You should also to learn distinguish easily those maneuvers, which there begins your opponent in time to have time to undertake reciprocal actions.

The basic purpose of maneuvering – to come to the opponent into a tail and when it is executed the second purpose – to remain there until the enemy will not be brought down. But all this to tell easier, than to make, in fact the opponent puts before itself precisely same purposes.

Your problem in execution of maneuvers on high speeds essentially becomes complicated the overloads arising at turns.
If the modern plane in a condition to maintain overloads in ten “g” for the pilot the overload in 5-6 “g” already appears significant.
In an abrupt bend the body is pressed in a seat and even the elementary pressing of the button becomes a difficult problem. Speak, that when overloads are directed downwards, blood casts to legs and in opinion of darkens, and when they are directed upwards on the contrary blood flows to a head and eyes are filled in with a crimson veil, and the first case is better, than the second. Do not forget about it, executing abrupt bends, and we now shall consider some basic maneuvers.

FIGHTING TURN. This maneuver allows to change quickly a direction of flight and to break attack of the contender, having brought down it an aiming.
    The fighting turn is carried out with a roll on 90 degrees, thus radius of a turn try to make minimally possible in view of admissible overloads. As at this maneuver speed the opponent who has not reacted in time it, can overtake you considerably decreases. Do not miss the opportunity which have given you ” to sit down to it on a tail “.

Even if the contender also can repeat your maneuver and will not miss the advantage, All of you as a rule deprive with its opportunity precisely to use the weapon. And even if you will not leave from the enemy all the same the fighting turn will allow you time to consider a situation and to prepare other maneuver which you will begin immediately after an output from a fighting turn. You never can win, if will defend only. Usually fighting turn a series of maneuvers in which end there will be your attack begins.

EARLY TURN. If the stage of rapproachement comes to an end with frontal attack by means of this maneuver it is possible to prepare call in a tail of the opponent. Your problem – to foresee, in what party the contender will turn off and hardly earlier to turn in opposite.

Maneuver – double. So, having turned to the right, you soon should be developed to the left, trying to come to the opponent in a tail. To foresee, where the contender will turn out, to some extent it is possible, if preliminary on it the rocket has been let out from the big distance.
If the rocket, for example, is in the right hemisphere the opponent, most likely, will leave to the left.

Maneuver is calculated on the unexperienced contender who can be late with reciprocal actions.

SCISSORS. It is a series of turns and counter-turns, which same purpose – to come to the contender into a tail. Especially often maneuver is applied after frontal rapproachement when both have turned the contender in one party.
    The primary goal – to pass the contender hardly forward for what it is necessary to lower speed up to minimally possible. The one who remains behind, that and should win it to fight. Draft of engines decreases to a minimum, it is possible to take advantage of flaps, but it is necessary to undertake safety measures from lag of the plane and проваливания in a corkscrew.

FLANK. It is a series of revolutions through a wing, but the direction of movement of the plane thus should remain to constants. The primary goal – to increase force of frontal resistance of air and to be braked. If the opponent “has hung” behind it can “slip” by inertia past and you will change over.

TURN-immelman. This maneuver is named so by name Max Immelman, the German expert of times of the first world war who has entered it into practice. “Иммельман” is полупетля with hilf-barell. The Starting position – horizontal flight, can hardly be lifted a nose upwards.
For exact execution of this maneuver it is necessary to have good speed.
In programs-simulators of times of the first world war this reception passes very seldom – planes had no sufficient speed.

         Reception is carried out simply: the handle up to a limit undertakes on itself, the plane soars up abruptly upwards and if the stock of speed was sufficient, goes on a loop. In the top point of this loop execution of maneuver comes to an end. As the plane at this time flies upwards the chassis to return it in normal position it is possible by means of hulf barrel.

It is rather effective reception since it allows at once and to change a direction of movement to 180 degrees and to type a stock on height and to prepare unexpected attack. Lack is necessity of high speed and significant delay of movement of the plane.
    The opponent can amaze the slow purpose with rockets, and can use your maneuver and the loss of speed connected with it that alive and safe to leave fight.

REVOLUTION. It in accuracy иммельман on the contrary. If you do not have speed for execution иммельмана it is possible to make the same, but a loop to execute not upwards, and downwards, i.e. to begin with a dive where necessary speed will be gathered. The difference consists only that if полубочка in иммельмане is carried out after fulfilment of maneuver here to turn over it is necessary up to an input in maneuver.

Restriction for this maneuver is necessity of a stock on height. If it is not present, maneuver is inapplicable.

LOOP. It is a full circle in a vertical plane. As you can see, it is possible to consider, that the loop is a combination иммельмана and REVOLUTION or on the contrary. Maneuver is convenient that in its result you can not only pass the contender forward, but also that at an output from maneuver your weapon already appears in the position convenient for fighting application.

From what to begin a loop – with REVOLUTION or, on the contrary, with иммельмана, your business, it depends on a concrete situation. In calculation your height and speed, and also position of the opponent are accepted.

DIVERGENCE. It is a critical part of air fight. Certainly the best way to leave it is to bring down the contender. But for the different reasons it can appear impossible. Perhaps, at you rockets have terminated, there can be you have understood, that to you it to fight to not win, and the plane is very dear, it should to try be rescueed. Perhaps, at you fuel comes to an end. The reasons can be much, but sooner or later there comes the moment when you start to think of that and as ” to leave this turmoil “.

Considering high speeds of modern rockets “air-air” and their considerable range of action to leave fight it appears much more difficultly, than to enter into it. It is necessary to come off somehow first of all the contender and to try to increase a distance between you before it will understand, that you have conceived. It demands exact calculation without which it is possible to be lost at attempt to flight.

If at your contender of rockets is not present (the simulator of times of the second world, etc.) or if it has already spent them the problem considerably becomes simpler. It is important to fall outside the limits only an effective zone of defeat by пушечно-machine-gun fire. Even if it will be attached at you ” on a tail ” and will be going to see off you home, its this business, harm will be a little.

The opponent armed by rockets, has much more ” long hands “. Even if your output from fight has passed successfully, All of you equally receive last farewell start-up of rockets and to prevent it you not in a condition though, certainly, systems of antimissile protection and skilful maneuvering can you and rescue.

If you have precisely calculated the stocks of fuel at an output from fight you will be helped by full draft of engines, and can be and a forcing (if it is stipulated by the program). It is not excluded also, as your opponent too has problems with fuel, therefore it can and not venture prosecution, – it too should reach the base.
By the way, for this reason the output from fight should be made not in any casual direction, namely there where there is your base.

One of the most convenient for an output from fight of maneuvers is REVOLUTION, especially if a dive downwards to execute with full draft and форсажом. If preliminary before REVOLUTION to make still the FIGHTING TURN with clearing horizontal speed it is an excellent combination not only “to come off”, but can be and get rid of the last run after “gift”.

Fight with application of the пушечно-machine-gun weapon.

Blossoming of fights with application of this kind of arms has fallen to the Korean war, and years through fifteen there has come its temporary “decline”. To the beginning of war in Vietnam theorists both at us, and in America, have come to conclusion that the era of the rocket weapon has put an end to machine guns and guns in aircraft. They recognized that now for defeat of the enemy plane enough to have onboard a radar and in time to press the necessary buttons. Further the self-directed jet shell will be made itself with the business and the opponent from it anywhere will not get to.

They have put idea in a basis of such conclusion that at huge speeds of planes their battle on distances up to two-three kilometers is improbable, and on greater distances guns machine guns do not operate. Moreover, they believed, that planes and cannot converge within the limits of visual visibility (typical fight of times of the Korean war) since the onboard rocket arms will not allow to make it. The Vietnamese war has convincingly shown, how much they were wrong.

Pilots have quickly learned to maneuver and avoid threat from self-directed rockets and the important element of air fight again became aviation guns. Moreover, as has shown an expert, high speeds of planes are characteristic for stages of rapproachement of planes in air to fight but when they already refer in a duel each pilot aspires to not increase speed, and to reduce, to appear ” on a tail ” the opponent. Speeds of air fight have appeared obviously exaggerated. All both was world since times of the First, and remains. All as art of work with guns and machine guns was reduced coming to the opponent ” into a tail ” (where it cannot be shot) and from close distance to put in it a charge of lead.

Except for a “six-hour” position of a gun it is possible to apply and being under a corner to a direction of movement of the plane of the opponent. In this case shooting should be conducted with some anticipation at the rate of the plane of the opponent and fire is characterized protecting. The most convenient way – to put before the opponent a cloud of shells and to wait, while it in it will fly.

 Fight with application of shells “Air-air”
Modern planes are equipped with two types of jet self-directed shells which differ on a control system:

         – With radio-electronic heads of homing;
         – With infra-red (thermal) heads of homing.

         Each of them has the advantages and the lacks, they should be known and correctly to apply this or that kind of arms in concrete conditions.

RADIO-ELECTRONIC SYSTEM of PROMPTING. Two basic categories have rockets of this class: with полуактивной a head of homing and with an active head of homing. The first demand, that the plane which has let out them, continued to hold the opponent under a sight during all time of flight of a rocket and would “highlight” its radar.
The rocket is directed on a beam reflected by plane of the opponent. Such way of prompting is a little bit inconvenient, as all time of “message” of the opponent is necessary, but first at greater дальностях it not so is complex, and secondly and aerodynamics of these rockets is solved easier (from them it is not required to such high maneuverability as from rockets for near fight) and electronics turns out easier, besides is the opportunity by coding a highlighting signal and the analysis допплеровского effect a reception head to distinguish signals from the purpose and from passive handicapes and to not pass the last through filters of an accepting head.

Rockets with an active head of homing radiate a signal and catch its reflection from the purpose. They it is more convenient, as your problem is reduced only resulting them in alertness and when the purpose “is grasped”, they can be started and forgotten. After their start you can continue the maneuvers.

THERMAL (INFRA-RED) SYSTEM of PROMPTING. These rockets are directed on the thermal radiation proceeding from the plane of the opponent. They are very convenient on short distances in some kilometers. They also do not demand support from the pilot and will choose to itself the purpose possessing the greatest thermal radiation within the limits of a cone of the review.

In near air their fight it is necessary to apply with the certain care as it it is perfect all the same on whom to be directed – aboard the plane the opponent or at the . Early models did not possess high reliability, they, for example, quite often “grasped” the sun or reflection of solar beams in the top layers of clouds and left from the purpose.
    Modern rockets much more reliably and not always even thermal “traps” (flares) in a condition to bring down them from sense. The latest samples can allocate precisely most теплоиспускающие zones in the enemy plane. They can be started up on the purpose under any corner, instead of necessarily behind. Such models easily avoid passive handicapes and to leave from them it is possible only maneuver.

 If you have undergone to rocket attack.

Your first problem – to avoid attack of enemy rockets and, first of all, rockets “Earth-air”. They are more intellectual than the air colleagues and of them to make a fool not so simply. If the program-simulator enables a choice of a route for execution of the flight task it is necessary to think how it to lay, avoiding on-opportunity dangerous sites (and they, as a rule, well-known owing to means of aerospace investigation).

But it is not always possible. Sometimes the purpose of your task is so well protected (for example as Bagdad in operation ” the Storm in desert “), what to break passing ground launchers is impossible.

Radio-electronic conditions around of your plane constantly is watched by special systems. They warn you that you are in beams of an enemy radar. In many programs they warn and that rocket firing air defence (it is made can be a sound signal or the text message on the screen). Quite often you warn and of approach of an enemy rocket. In this situation you have two ways: to begin antimissile maneuver or to use a passive handicap.

If you decide to apply antimissile maneuver look section ” the Analysis of a situation “. An essence that you always should be on the alert and in any second are ready to result the plan on leaving from enemy rockets in action. If after a signal about a coming nearer rocket you will think of how from it to leave you the dead man.
    To think it was necessary earlier when threats were not, and here it is necessary to operate.

From rockets it is possible to apply the same maneuvers about which we spoke to leaving when considered air fight. However, here business is a little bit more difficultly as rockets fly more quickly, than planes and, besides, their electronics does not complicate itself meditations as the brain of the alive pilot and consequently does not waste time in vain. On the other hand, business is and is easier. In fact the rocket needs to be deceived only once, to return it cannot any more. Therefore for all cases of a life of leaving from rockets you can fulfil one complex of maneuvers, to bring to its perfection and all time to apply it automatically. If you normally perfect the actions can leave confidently enough from rockets and even thus to not lose the general direction on the purpose of the flight task.

First of all, do not lose a head and do not panic. As the rocket flies more quickly at it and the radius of a turn is more, than you and at you have a chance from it to leave. If the rocket comes nearer from a back hemisphere, you can make an abrupt turn on an arch which entirely remains inside of an arch on which the rocket will be developed.
Thus the exact choice of time of the beginning of a turn is important. It is better to begin maneuver during last possible moment. If to begin it too early the rocket, operating on algorithm of “scissors”, can trace
Your manipulations. Well, and if to begin maneuver too late… Understand.

If the rocket comes nearer to you under a corner you can lead maneuver of turn in a direction of a rocket. Here the problem to make so that the corner between a direction of movement of a rocket and your direction was and remained stupid. Then as a result you besides will appear inside its radius of turn and it safely passes you.

If the rocket comes nearer to you in front, process of leaving from it – two-step. First it is necessary to make an incomplete fighting turn (on 90 degrees), and then to adhere to the same technics which is described in the previous paragraph.

Statement of passive handicapes.
Passive means of struggle against directed rockets basically happen two types: it дипольные reflectors and infra-red traps.

There are still false purposes, but they have considerable weight and consequently by planes of tactical aircraft are not applied, and used on strategic bombers.

Dipol reflectors settle down in containers and are suspended under wings. These are strips резанной a metal foil which sizes pay off so that well to reflect a radio emission of the set length of a wave. Such passive handicap can “blind” a head of homing of a rocket and withdraw it from the present purpose. The basic problem – to put a handicap then when it is necessary, not earlier, not later. If to make it too early, the rocket can be switched aboard the plane and if to make it too late the handicap will not have time to work. The best result gives ejection of a handicap when the rocket is approximately in five kilometers from you.

Infra-red traps are intended for withdrawal from the plane of rockets with a thermal head of homing. They are shot by volleys on нескольку pieces at once. Duration of time of burning of thermal traps is insignificant – the order of 5…10 seconds. For this time the self-directed rocket should “pick up” the false purpose and lose present. However, after the grasped pseudo-purpose completely will burn out, the rocket again can begin search of the purpose and if you have not made any maneuver its new purpose can quite become besides your plane. As the stock of infra-red traps, as well as дипольных reflectors, by tactical planes is very limited to use them it is necessary prudently and economically.

In summary, practical advice. To trust the life to such undependable means as passive handicapes, to the present pilot does not follow. Handicapes is, certainly, well, but antimissile maneuvering is much more reliable. If you work with the aviation simulator more less reliable work of passive handicapes is provided only at the lowest levels of complexity, at higher levels you will force down in fifty cases from hundred if you will rely on such protection.

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